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Or more precisely, all of the globally controlled quantities for Navier-Stokes evolution which we are aware of (and we are not aware of very many) are either supercritical with respect to scaling, which means that they are much weaker at controlling fine-scale behaviour than controlling coarse-scale behaviour, or they are non-coercive, which means that they do not really control the solution at all, either at coarse scales or at fine.

Reinstating (2) is impossible without changing the statement of the problem, or adding some additional hypotheses; also, in perturbative situations the Navier-Stokes equation evolves almost linearly, while in the non-perturbative setting it behaves very nonlinearly, so there is basically no chance of a reduction of the non-perturbative case to the perturbative one unless one comes up with a highly nonlinear transform to achieve this (e.g. Thus, one is left with only three possible strategies if one wants to solve the full problem: For the rest of this post I refer to these strategies as “Strategy 1”, “Strategy 2”, and “Strategy 3”.

Much effort has been expended here, especially on Strategy 3, but the supercriticality of the equation presents a truly significant obstacle which already defeats all known methods.

Strategy 1 is probably hopeless; the last century of experience has shown that (with the very notable exception of completely integrable systems, of which the Navier-Stokes equations is not an example) most nonlinear PDE, even those arising from physics, do not enjoy explicit formulae for solutions from arbitrary data (although it may well be the case that there are interesting exact solutions from special (e.g. Strategy 2 may have a little more hope; after all, the Poincaré conjecture became solvable (though still very far from trivial) after Perelman introduced a new globally controlled quantity for Ricci flow (the Perelman entropy) which turned out to be both coercive and critical.

It is always dangerous to venture an opinion as to why a problem is hard (cf.

Clarke’s first law), but I’m going to stick my neck out on this one, because (a) it seems that there has been a lot of effort expended on this problem recently, sometimes perhaps without full awareness of the main difficulties, and (b) I would love to be proved wrong on this opinion :-) .

The global regularity problem for Navier-Stokes is of course a Clay Millennium Prize problem and it would be redundant to describe it again here.I will note, however, that it asks for existence of global smooth solutions to a Cauchy problem for a nonlinear PDE.There are countless other global regularity results of this type for many (but certainly not all) other nonlinear PDE; for instance, global regularity is known for Navier-Stokes in two spatial dimensions rather than three (this result essentially dates all the way back to Leray’s thesis in 1933! Why is the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes global regularity problem considered so hard, when global regularity for so many other equations is easy, or at least achievable?(For this post, I am only considering the global regularity problem for Navier-Stokes, from a purely mathematical viewpoint, and in the precise formulation given by the Clay Institute; I will not discuss at all the question as to what implications a rigorous solution (either positive or negative) to this problem would have for physics, computational fluid dynamics, or other disciplines, as these are beyond my area of expertise.But if anyone qualified in these fields wants to make a comment along these lines, by all means do so.) The standard response to this question is turbulence – the behaviour of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations at fine scales is much more nonlinear (and hence unstable) than at coarse scales.I would phrase the obstruction slightly differently, as supercriticality.