Carbonate species, dissolved in appreciable quantities in all ground waters, can be extracted and used for radiocarbon dating.The material is mainly of biogenic origin, but contains some bicarbonate produced from limestone.
The paper aims to define the contribution of subaerial and submarine coastal springs to the hydrological dynamic equilibrium of this internal sea basin.
A general approach was defined, including a hydrogeological basin border assessment to detect inflowing springs, detailed geological and hydrogeological conceptualisation, in situ submarine and subaerial spring measurements, and flow numerical modelling.
Multiple sources of data were obtained to define a relevant geodatabase, and it contained information on approximately 2000 wells, located in the study area (1600 km) The conceptualisation of the hydrogeological basin, which is 978 km wide, was supported by a 3D geological model that interpolated 716 stratigraphic logs.
Comparisons of the limestone dilution correction techniques show that they produce analogous results in actual aquifer studies, but with small differences in the calculated radiocarbon ages.
The reasons for these inconsistencies have not yet been unequivocally established.
Two problems are: the possibility of irreversible exchange of the ground water dissolved carbonate species with limestone in the aquifer matrix, and the significance of exchange of carbon dioxide in the water with that of the soil air in the surface layer of the catchment zone.
Experiments are suggested that could resolve these questions.
ABSTRACT: The Mar Piccolo basin is an internal sea basin located along the Ionian coast (Southern Italy), and it is surrounded primarily by fractured carbonate karstic environment.
Because of the karstic features, the main continental water inflow is from groundwater discharge.
The Mar Piccolo basin represents a peculiar and sensitive environment and a social emergency because of sea water and sediment pollution.
This pollution appears to be caused by the overlapping effects of dangerous anthropogenic activities, including heavy industries and commercial and navy dockyards.