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Berners-Lee W3C/MIT June 1999 Status of this Memo This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.This specification defines the protocol referred to as "HTTP/1.1", and is an update to RFC 2068 [33].Table of Contents 1 Introduction ...................................................7 1.1 Purpose......................................................7 1.2 Requirements .................................................8 1.3 Terminology ..................................................8 1.4 Overall Operation ...........................................12 2 Notational Conventions and Generic Grammar ....................14 2.1 Augmented BNF ...............................................14 2.2 Basic Rules .................................................15 3 Protocol Parameters ...........................................17 3.1 HTTP Version ................................................17 3.2 Uniform Resource Identifiers ................................18 3.2.1 General Syntax ...........................................19 3.2.2 http URL .................................................19 3.2.3 URI Comparison ...........................................20 3.3 Date/Time Formats ...........................................20 3.3.1 Full Date ................................................20 3.3.2 Delta Seconds ............................................21 3.4 Character Sets ..............................................21 3.4.1 Missing Charset ..........................................22 3.5 Content Codings .............................................23 3.6 Transfer Codings ............................................24 3.6.1 Chunked Transfer Coding ..................................25 3.7 Media Types .................................................26 3.7.1 Canonicalization and Text Defaults .......................27 3.7.2 Multipart Types ..........................................27 3.8 Product Tokens ..............................................28 3.9 Quality Values ..............................................29 3.10 Language Tags ...............................................29 3.11 Entity Tags .................................................30 3.12 Range Units .................................................30 4 HTTP Message ..................................................31 4.1 Message Types ...............................................31 4.2 Message Headers .............................................31 4.3 Message Body ................................................32 4.4 Message Length ..............................................33 4.5 General Header Fields .......................................34 5 Request .......................................................35 5.1 Request-Line ................................................35 5.1.1 Method ...................................................36 5.1.2 Request-URI ..............................................36 5.2 The Resource Identified by a Request ........................38 5.3 Request Header Fields .......................................38 6 Response ......................................................39 6.1 Status-Line .................................................39 6.1.1 Status Code and Reason Phrase ............................39 6.2 Response Header Fields ......................................41 7 Entity ........................................................42 7.1 Entity Header Fields ........................................42 7.2 Entity Body .................................................43 7.2.1 Type .....................................................43 7.2.2 Entity Length ............................................43 8 Connections ...................................................44 8.1 Persistent Connections ......................................44 8.1.1 Purpose ..................................................44 8.1.2 Overall Operation ........................................45 8.1.3 Proxy Servers ............................................46 8.1.4 Practical Considerations .................................46 8.2 Message Transmission Requirements ...........................47 8.2.1 Persistent Connections and Flow Control ..................47 8.2.2 Monitoring Connections for Error Status Messages .........48 8.2.3 Use of the 100 (Continue) Status .........................48 8.2.4 Client Behavior if Server Prematurely Closes Connection ..50 9 Method Definitions ............................................51 9.1 Safe and Idempotent Methods .................................51 9.1.1 Safe Methods .............................................51 9.1.2 Idempotent Methods .......................................51 9.2 OPTIONS .....................................................52 9.3 GET .........................................................53 9.4 HEAD ........................................................54 9.5 POST ........................................................54 9.6 PUT .........................................................55 9.7 DELETE ......................................................56 9.8 TRACE .......................................................56 9.9 CONNECT .....................................................57 10 Status Code Definitions ......................................57 10.1 Informational 1xx ...........................................57 10.1.1 100 Continue .............................................58 10.1.2 101 Switching Protocols ..................................58 10.2 Successful 2xx ..............................................58 10.2.1 200 OK ...................................................58 10.2.2 201 Created ..............................................59 10.2.3 202 Accepted .............................................59 10.2.4 203 Non-Authoritative Information ........................59 10.2.5 204 No Content ...........................................60 10.2.6 205 Reset Content ........................................60 10.2.7 206 Partial Content ......................................60 10.3 Redirection 3xx .............................................61 10.3.1 300 Multiple Choices .....................................61 10.3.2 301 Moved Permanently ....................................62 10.3.3 302 Found ................................................62 10.3.4 303 See Other ............................................63 10.3.5 304 Not Modified .........................................63 10.3.6 305 Use Proxy ............................................64 10.3.7 306 (Unused) .............................................64 10.3.8 307 Temporary Redirect ...................................65 10.4 Client Error 4xx ............................................65 10.4.1 400 Bad Request .........................................65 10.4.2 401 Unauthorized ........................................66 10.4.3 402 Payment Required ....................................66 10.4.4 403 Forbidden ...........................................66 10.4.5 404 Not Found ...........................................66 10.4.6 405 Method Not Allowed ..................................66 10.4.7 406 Not Acceptable ......................................67 10.4.8 407 Proxy Authentication Required .......................67 10.4.9 408 Request Timeout .....................................67 10.4.10 409 Conflict ............................................67 10.4.11 410 Gone ................................................68 10.4.12 411 Length Required .....................................68 10.4.13 412 Precondition Failed .................................68 10.4.14 413 Request Entity Too Large ............................69 10.4.15 414 Request-URI Too Long ................................69 10.4.16 415 Unsupported Media Type ..............................69 10.4.17 416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable .....................69 10.4.18 417 Expectation Failed ..................................70 10.5 Server Error 5xx ............................................70 10.5.1 500 Internal Server Error ................................70 10.5.2 501 Not Implemented ......................................70 10.5.3 502 Bad Gateway ..........................................70 10.5.4 503 Service Unavailable ..................................70 10.5.5 504 Gateway Timeout ......................................71 10.5.6 505 HTTP Version Not Supported ...........................71 11 Access Authentication ........................................71 12 Content Negotiation ..........................................71 12.1 Server-driven Negotiation ...................................72 12.2 Agent-driven Negotiation ....................................73 12.3 Transparent Negotiation .....................................74 13 Caching in HTTP ..............................................74 13.1.1 Cache Correctness ........................................75 13.1.2 Warnings .................................................76 13.1.3 Cache-control Mechanisms .................................77 13.1.4 Explicit User Agent Warnings .............................78 13.1.5 Exceptions to the Rules and Warnings .....................78 13.1.6 Client-controlled Behavior ...............................79 13.2 Expiration Model ............................................79 13.2.1 Server-Specified Expiration ..............................79 13.2.2 Heuristic Expiration .....................................80 13.2.3 Age Calculations .........................................80 13.2.4 Expiration Calculations ..................................83 13.2.5 Disambiguating Expiration Values .........................84 13.2.6 Disambiguating Multiple Responses ........................84 13.3 Validation Model ............................................85 13.3.1 Last-Modified Dates ......................................86 13.3.2 Entity Tag Cache Validators ..............................86 13.3.3 Weak and Strong Validators ...............................86 13.3.4 Rules for When to Use Entity Tags and Last-Modified Dates.89 13.3.5 Non-validating Conditionals ..............................90 13.4 Response Cacheability .......................................91 13.5 Constructing Responses From Caches ..........................92 13.5.1 End-to-end and Hop-by-hop Headers ........................92 13.5.2 Non-modifiable Headers ...................................92 13.5.3 Combining Headers ........................................94 13.5.4 Combining Byte Ranges ....................................95 13.6 Caching Negotiated Responses ................................95 13.7 Shared and Non-Shared Caches ................................96 13.8 Errors or Incomplete Response Cache Behavior ................97 13.9 Side Effects of GET and HEAD ................................97 13.10 Invalidation After Updates or Deletions ...................97 13.11 Write-Through Mandatory ...................................98 13.12 Cache Replacement .........................................99 13.13 History Lists .............................................99 14 Header Field Definitions ....................................100 14.1 Accept .....................................................100 14.2 Accept-Charset .............................................102 14.3 Accept-Encoding ............................................102 14.4 Accept-Language ............................................104 14.5 Accept-Ranges ..............................................105 14.6 Age ........................................................106 14.7 Allow ......................................................106 14.8 Authorization ..............................................107 14.9 Cache-Control ..............................................108 14.9.1 What is Cacheable .......................................109 14.9.2 What May be Stored by Caches ............................110 14.9.3 Modifications of the Basic Expiration Mechanism .........111 14.9.4 Cache Revalidation and Reload Controls ..................113 14.9.5 No-Transform Directive ..................................115 14.9.6 Cache Control Extensions ................................116 14.10 Connection ...............................................117 14.11 Content-Encoding .........................................118 14.12 Content-Language .........................................118 14.13 Content-Length ...........................................119 14.14 Content-Location .........................................120 14.15 Content-MD5 ..............................................121 14.16 Content-Range ............................................122 14.17 Content-Type .............................................124 14.18 Date .....................................................124 14.18.1 Clockless Origin Server Operation ......................125 14.19 ETag .....................................................126 14.20 Expect ...................................................126 14.21 Expires ..................................................127 14.22 From .....................................................128 14.23 Host .....................................................128 14.24 If-Match .................................................129 14.25 If-Modified-Since ........................................130 14.26 If-None-Match ............................................132 14.27 If-Range .................................................133 14.28 If-Unmodified-Since ......................................134 14.29 Last-Modified ............................................134 14.30 Location .................................................135 14.31 Max-Forwards .............................................136 14.32 Pragma ...................................................136 14.33 Proxy-Authenticate .......................................137 14.34 Proxy-Authorization ......................................137 14.35 Range ....................................................138 14.35.1 Byte Ranges ...........................................138 14.35.2 Range Retrieval Requests ..............................139 14.36 Referer ..................................................140 14.37 Retry-After ..............................................141 14.38 Server ...................................................141 14.39 TE .......................................................142 14.40 Trailer ..................................................143 14.41 Transfer-Encoding..........................................143 14.42 Upgrade ..................................................144 14.43 User-Agent ...............................................145 14.44 Vary .....................................................145 14.45 Via ......................................................146 14.46 Warning ..................................................148 14.47 WWW-Authenticate .........................................150 15 Security Considerations .......................................150 15.1 Personal Information....................................151 15.1.1 Abuse of Server Log Information .........................151 15.1.2 Transfer of Sensitive Information .......................151 15.1.3 Encoding Sensitive Information in URI's .................152 15.1.4 Privacy Issues Connected to Accept Headers ..............152 15.2 Attacks Based On File and Path Names .......................153 15.3 DNS Spoofing ...............................................154 15.4 Location Headers and Spoofing ..............................154 15.5 Content-Disposition Issues .................................154 15.6 Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients ................155 15.7 Proxies and Caching ........................................155 15.7.1 Denial of Service Attacks on Proxies....................156 16 Acknowledgments .............................................156 17 References ..................................................158 18 Authors' Addresses ..........................................162 19 Appendices ..................................................164 19.1 Internet Media Type message/http and application/http ......164 19.2 Internet Media Type multipart/byteranges ...................165 19.3 Tolerant Applications ......................................166 19.4 Differences Between HTTP Entities and RFC 2045 Entities ....167 19.4.1 MIME-Version ............................................167 19.4.2 Conversion to Canonical Form ............................167 19.4.3 Conversion of Date Formats ..............................168 19.4.4 Introduction of Content-Encoding ........................168 19.4.5 No Content-Transfer-Encoding ............................168 19.4.6 Introduction of Transfer-Encoding .......................169 19.4.7 MHTML and Line Length Limitations .......................169 19.5 Additional Features ........................................169 19.5.1 Content-Disposition .....................................170 19.6 Compatibility with Previous Versions .......................170 19.6.1 Changes from HTTP/1.0 ...................................171 19.6.2 Compatibility with HTTP/1.0 Persistent Connections ......172 19.6.3 Changes from RFC 2068 ...................................172 20 Index .......................................................175 21 Full Copyright Statement ....................................176 The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.

A feature of HTTP is the typing and negotiation of data representation, allowing systems to be built independently of the data being transferred. It is a generic, stateless, protocol which can be used for many tasks beyond its use for hypertext, such as name servers and distributed object management systems, through extension of its request methods, error codes and headers [47]. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state and status of this protocol. Copyright Notice Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999). Abstract The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.Get alerts if your page triggers a certain condition!Set numerous conditions based on Page Speed/YSlow score, Page load time, Total Page size, etc, and get an e-mail notification whenever any are triggered.

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